These pieces of missing knowledge and understanding would have been gained by doing a formal hands-on training course. Without that, I found myself repeatedly in the situation of knowing something can be done in ETS5/KNX, but being unable to figure out in the first instance how to do it.
KNX is a remarkable thing. It is a 30+ year old, published and standardised, protocol for building automation. It includes a standardised set of mechanisms for physically wiring and installing KNX-speaking devices in a building. More than 450 hardware vendors with guaranteed interoperation.
That is all there is to it! Now your Windows instance reaches out and obtains its own TCP/IP address on the LAN, and it now has distinct (and direct) network identity. Now, it can see the LAN environment properly including (in particular) the IP Multicast packets that KNX relies upon, to work properly.
The ETS dongle uses a conventional USB-B plug, and my Mac is 100% USB-C. Given how expensive the license (and hence dongle) is, I have no qualms about dedicating an Apple USB-B to USB-C adaptor for the exclusive use of the dongle.
When you license ETS5, the KNX association sends your dongle in a lovely little presentation box. The box is made of sturdy cardboard material with nice printing on it, and the dongle sits inside, in a little foam bed. Very swish.
This box is big enough that I can put it in the accessory pouch in my laptop bag without losing it. Having to open that presentation box and clip the dongle into the Apple USB-C adaptor to use it, and then having to take it all apart again after each use, was painful. I lived in fear of the dongle getting detached from the adaptor and being lost.
What I did was to cut out a little hole in the end of the cardboard presentation box, plugged the dongle into the USB-C adaptor, closed that into the box and taped it shut (and wrote my name and number on the back).
What I did soon afterwards was to segment my KNX environment between that test bench and some pre-existing KNX equipment that was installed into my house some years ago by someone else (to implement an underfloor heating system). I segmented it using KNX/IP routers (more about those in a later blog post).
This means my test bench can be turned off and on, or futzed with in general, without breaking the production environment in the house. However, because I am using a couple of KNX/IP routers (one in the production setup, and one on the test bench), I can still reach back and forth between the deployed hardware and the test bench to try things (e.g. making a switch on my test bench drive a real world gadget somewhere else in the house).
This was the first device I tried to get the hang of configuring using ETS5. When I started trying to do that, I just could not work out how to send anything but binary (single bit on/off) outcomes from it.
Then change the network connection to either Shared or Default. If doesn't work then change it back to the original setting and ETS should be able to see the devices again as the interface will have reset. It will take a few seconds for ETS to scan the network connection after each change.
Wir stellen die beiden Lösungen vor, mit denen sich umfangreiche Hausbau-Vorhaben auch an einem Apple Mac-System realisieren lassen. Ein zweiter Rechner mit Windows-System ist damit nicht nötig. Der Vorteil eines jeden Mac-Systems: Es lassen sich beide Betriebssysteme (Mac OS und Windows) parallel nativ installieren.
Wenn ihr Euer Haus komplett selbst einrichten und programmieren wollt, dann empfehlen wir unsere Klick-Anleitung: In 8 Stunden zum KNX Smart Home: Klick-Anleitung für Bauherren/Elektriker
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KNX Virtualrepresents more than 10 different types of KNX devices, all connected to one TPline. These KNX devices operate upon a number of 'building loads' like lamps,dimmable lamps, blinds, heating & cooling valves.
KNX is an open standard (see EN 50090, ISO/IEC 14543) for commercial and domestic building automation. KNX devices can manage lighting, blinds and shutters, HVAC, security systems, energy management, audio video, white goods, displays, remote control, etc. KNX evolved from three earlier standards; the European Home Systems Protocol (EHS), BatiBUS, and the European Installation Bus (EIB or Instabus).
It can use twisted pair (in a tree, line or star topology), powerline, RF, or IP links. On this network, the devices form distributed applications and tight interaction is possible. This is implemented via interworking models with standardised datapoint types and objects, modelling logical device channels.
KNX is not based on a specific hardware platform and a network can be controlled by anything from an 8-bit microcontroller to a PC, according to the demands of a particular building. The most common form of installation is over twisted pair medium.
It is administered by the KNX Association cvba, a non-profit organisation governed by Belgian law which was formed in 1999. The KNX Association had 500 registered hardware and software vendor members from 45 nations as at 1 July 2021. It had partnership agreements with 100,000 installer companies in 172 countries and more than 500 registered training centres. This is a royalty-free open standard and thus access to the KNX specifications is unrestricted.
KNX devices are commonly connected by a twisted pair bus and can be modified from a controller. The bus is routed in parallel to the electrical power supply to all devices and systems on the network linking:
Classifying devices as either "sensor" or "actuator" is outdated and simplistic. Many actuators include controller functionality, but also sensor functionality (for instance measuring operating hours, number of switch cycles, current, electrical power consumption, and more).
Application software, together with system topology and commissioning software, is loaded onto the devices via a system interface component. Installed systems can be accessed via LAN, point to point links, or phone networks for central or distributed control of the system via computers, tablets and touch screens, and smartphones.
Central to the KNX architecture concepts are datapoints (inputs, outputs, parameters, and diagnostic data) which represent process and control variables in the system. The standardised containers for these datapoints are group objects and interface object properties. The communication system offers a reduced instruction set to read and write datapoint values. Datapoints have to conform to standardised datapoint types, themselves grouped into functional blocks. These functional blocks and datapoint types are related to applications fields, but some of them are of general use (such as date and time). Datapoints may be accessed through unicast or multicast mechanisms.
KNX encompasses tools for project engineering tasks such as linking a series of individual devices into a functioning installation and integrating different media and configuration modes. This is embodied in an Engineering Tool Software (ETS) suite.
A KNX installation always consists of a set of devices connected to the bus or network. Device models vary according to node roles, capabilities, management features and configuration modes, and are all laid down in the profiles. There are also general-purpose device models, such as for bus coupling units (BCUs) or bus interface modules (BIMs).
Devices may be identified and subsequently accessed throughout the network either by their individual address, or by their unique serial number, depending on the configuration mode. (Unique serial numbers are allocated by the KNX Association Certification Department.) Devices can also disclose both a manufacturer specific reference and functional (manufacturer independent) information when queried.
Coupling units allow address filtering which helps to improve performance given the limited bus signal speed. An installation based on KNXnet/IP allows the integration of KNX sub networks via IP as the KNX address structure is similar to an IP address.
The TP1 twisted pair bus (inherited from EIB) provides asynchronous, character oriented data transfer and half-duplex bidirectional differential signaling with a signaling speed of 9600 bit/s. Media access control is via CSMA/CA. Every bus user has equal data transmission rights and data is exchanged directly (peer-to-peer) between bus users. SELV power is distributed via the same pair for low-power devices. A deprecated specification, TP0, running at a slower signalling speed of 4800 bit/s, has been retained from the BatiBUS standard but KNX products cannot exchange information with BatiBUS devices.
PL 110 power-line transmission is delivered using spread frequency shift keying signalling with asynchronous transmission of data packets and half duplex bi-directional communication. It uses the central frequency 110 kHz (CENELEC B-band) and has a data rate of 1200 bit/s. It also uses CSMA. KNX Powerline is aimed at smart white goods, but the take-up has been low. An alternative variant, PL 132, has a carrier frequency centred on 132.5 kHz (CENELEC C-band).
KNX Telegrams can be signed or encrypted thanks to the extension of the protocol that was developed starting in 2013, KNX Data Secure for securing telegrams on the traditional KNX media TP and RF and KNX IP Secure for securing KNX telegrams tunnelled via IP. KNX Data Secure became an EN standard (EN 50090-3-4) in 2018, KNX IP Secure an ISO standard (ISO 22510) in 2019. 1e1e36bf2d